Image Analysis Software for Natural Resources

SamplePoint            SampleFreq            ImageMeasurement             About

SamplePoint is free software for manual image analysis. It facilitates foliar cover measurements from nadir imagery by superimposing a systematic or random array of up to 225 crosshairs targeting single image pixels and providing a platform for simple, manual classification of those pixels. Up to 30 species or classes are user-defined, and data are saved automatically to an Excel spreadsheet. SamplePoint was developed by Berryman Consulting in cooperation with the USDA Agricultural Research Service and the USDI Bureau of Land Management.

System requirements: Windows OS with .NET Framework 2.0, 5 MB free disk space, Microsoft Excel 97, 512 MB RAM
Current release: 1.59;  13 Nov 2015
Reference: Booth DT, SE Cox & RD Berryman. Point sampling digital imagery with ‘SamplePoint’. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 123:97-108.

The software has been tested and been found in specific projects to function properly; however, no warranty is 
implied regarding its proper function across all data sets. It is provided AS IS, with no implied liability for usage.

Download SamplePoint (4 MB)           Help File            Tutorial

There is no need to uninstall an older version of SamplePoint prior to installing an updated version. No classification data will be lost if updating from an earlier version of SamplePoint. For assistance, email

Peer-reviewed research using SamplePoint
(Copyright restrictions limit access to some articles. Some links are limited to users on a network operated by an organization with a subscription to JStore or BioOne, which includes most government and university users. A free registration to ResearchGate is required to view some publications. If you have used SamplePoint in your research and it's not listed below, please let us know at 

Augustine DJ, DT Booth, SE Cox, JD Derner. 2012. Grazing intensity and spatial heterogeneity in bare soil in a grazing-resistant grassland. Rangeland Ecology and Management 65(1): 39-46.

Augustine DJ, JD Derner. 2012. Disturbance regimes and mountain plover habitat in shortgrass steppe: Large herbivore grazing does not substitute for prairie dog grazing or fire. Journal of Wildlife Management DOI: 10.1002/jwmg.334

Baresel JP, P Rischbeck, Y Hu, S Kipp, G Barmeier, B Mistele. 2017. Use of a digital camera as alternative method for non-destructive detection of the leaf chlorophyll content and the nitrogen nutrition status in wheat. Computers and Electronics in Agriculture 140:25–33.

Beck JL, DT Booth, CL Kennedy. 2014. Assessing Greater Sage-Grouse breeding habitat with aerial and ground imagery. Rangeland Ecology and Management 67(3):328-332.

Booth DT, SE Cox, G Simonds, ED Sant. 2012. Willow cover as a stream-recovery indicator under a conservation grazing plan. Ecological Indicators 18:512-519.

Booth DT and SE Cox. 2011. Art to science: Tools for greater objectivity in resource monitoring. Rangelands 33(4):27-34.

Booth, DT, SE Cox and D Teel. 2010. Aerial assessment of leafy spurge (Euphorbia esula L.) on Idaho’s Deep Fire Burn. Native Plants Journal 11:327-339.

Booth, DT and SE Cox. 2009. Dual-camera, high-resolution aerial assessment of pipeline revegetation. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment  158: 23-33.

Booth, DT, SE Cox, T Meikle HR Zuuring. 2008. Ground-cover measurements: Assessing correlation among aerial and ground-based methods. Journal of Environmental Management 42(6): 1091-1100.

Booth, DT, SE Cox. 2008. Image-based monitoring to measure ecological change in rangeland. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 6:185-190.

Breckenridge RP, ME Dakins. 2011. Evaluation of bare ground on rangelands using unmanned aerial vehicles. GIS Science and Remote Sensing 48(1):74-85. 

Breckenridge RP, M Dakins, S Bunting, JL Harbour, S White. 2011. Comparison of unmanned aerial vehicle platforms for assessing vegetation cover in sagebrush steppe ecosystems. Rangeland Ecology and Management 84(5): 521-532

Brungard CW, JL Boettinger, LE Hipps. 2015. Wind erosion potential of lacustrine and alluvial soils before and after disturbance in the eastern Great Basin, USA: Estimating threshold friction velocity using easier-to-measure soil properties. Aeolian Research 18:185-203.

Cagney J, E Bainter, B Budd, T Christiansen, V Herren, M Holloran, B Rashford, M Smith, J Williams. 2010. Grazing Influence, Objective Development, and Management in Wyoming’s Greater Sage-Grouse Habitat. University of Wyoming Extension Publication B-1203.

Cagney J, SE Cox, DT Booth. 2011. Comparison of point intercept and image analysis for monitoring rangeland composition and trend. Rangeland Ecology and Management 64:309–315.

Chen Z, W Chen, SG LeBlanc, GHR Henry. 2010. Digital photograph anlaysis for measuring percent plant cover in the Arctic Arctic 63(3):315-326.

Clark PE, DE Johnson, SP Hardegree. 2008. A direct approach for quantifying stream shading. Rangeland Ecology and Management 61:339-345.

Cox SE, DT Booth. 2009. Shadow attenuation with high dynamic range images. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 158: 231-241.

Crimmins MA, TM Crimmins. 2008. Monitoring plant phenology using digital repeat photography. Environmental Management 41:949-958.

Dijkstra FA, JA Morgan, RF Follett, DR LeCain. 2013. Climate change reduces the net sink of CH4 and N2O in a semiarid grassland. Global Change Biology 19(6): 1816-1826. DOI:10.1111/gcb.12182

Garibotti IA, MG Polo, S Tabeni. 2018 Linking biological soil crust attributes to the multifunctionality of vegetated patches and interspaces in a semiarid shrubland. Functional Ecology DOI 10.1111/1365-2435.13044.

Gasch, CK, SV Huzurbazar, PD Stahl. 2015. Description of vegetation and soil properties in sagebrush steppe following pipeline burial, reclamation, and recovery time. Geoderma. doi:10.1016/j.geoderma.2015.11.013

Gearhart A, DT Booth, K Sedevic, C Schauer. 2013. Use of Kendall's coefficient of concordance to assess agreement among observers of very high resolution imagery. Geocarto Intl 28(6):517-5264

Ghazilou A, MR Shokri, W Gladstone. 2015. Application of baited remote underwater video stations to assess benthic coverage in the Persian Gulf. Marine Pollution Bulletin. SOI:10.1016/jmarpolbul.2015.09.034

Gillan JK, JW Karl, N Barger, MC Duniway. 2015. Spatially explicit rangeland erosion monitoring using high-resolution digital aerial imagery. Rangeland Ecology and Management.doi:10.1016/j.rama.2015.10.012

Goonan K, R Manning, CJ van Riper, C Monz. 2009. Managing recreation on mountain summits in the northern forest region of Maine, New Hampshire, New York, and Vermont. Proceedings of the 2009 Northeastern Recreation Research Symposium. GTR-NRS-P-66.

Gosselin EN, JD Holbrook, K Huggler, E Brown, KT Vierling, RS Arkle, DS Pilliod. 2016. Ecosystem engineering of harvester ants: Effects on vegetation in a sagebrush-steppe ecosystem. Western North American Naturalist 76(1): 82-89.

Greet BJ, BA Mealor, AR Kniss. 2016. Response of Delphinium occidentale and associated vegetation to aminocyclopyrachlor. Rangeland Ecology and Management DOI:10.1016/j.rama.2016.06.004.

Guo Q, Z Hu, S Li, G Yu, X Sun, L Li, N Liang, W Bai. 2016. Exogneous N addition ehnances the responses of gross primary productivity to individual precipitation events in a temperate grassland. Scientific Reports 6:26901

Haileselassie H, A Araya, S Habtu, KG Meles, G Gebru, I Kisekka, A Girma, KM Hadgu, AJ Foster. 2016. Exploring optimal farm resources management strategy for Quncho-teff (Eragrostis tef (Zucc.) Trotter) using AquaCrop model Agricultural Water Management 178:148-158.

Haswell PM, KA Jones, J Kusak, MW Hayward. 2018. Fear, foraging and olfaction: how mesopredators avoid costly interactions with apex predators Oecologia,

Holbrook JD, DS Pilliod, RS Arkle, JL Rachlow, KT Vierling, MM Wiest. 2016. Transition of vegetation states positively affects harvester ants in the Great Basin, United States. Rangeland Ecology and Management. DOI 10.1016/j.rama.2016.06.009.

Howland B, D Stojanovic, IJ Gordon, J Radford, AD Manning, DB Lindenmayer. 2016 Birds of a feather flock together: Using trait-groups to understand the effect of macropod grazing on birds in grassy habitats. Biological Conservation 194:89-99

Howland B, D Stojanovic, IJ Gordon, AD Manning, D Flether, DB Lindenmayer. 2014 Eaten out of house and home: Impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands. PLOS One DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105966

Howland B, D Stojanovic, IJ Gordon, AD Manning, D Flether, DB Lindenmayer. 2014 Cover Crop Mixtures Do Not Use Water Differently than Single-Species Plantings. PLOS One DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0105966

Hunt ER, CS Daughtry, SB Mirsky, WD Hively. 2014 Remote sensing with simulated unmanned aircraft imagery for precision agriculture applications. IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing 7(11):4566-4571.

Ko D, D Kim, A Narantsetseg, S Kang. 2017 Comparison of f field- and satellite-based vegetation cover estimation methods.. Journal of Ecology and Environment. DOI 10.1186/s41610-016-0022-z

Laamrani A, RP Lara, AA Berg, D Branson, P Joosse. 2018. Using a mobile device app and proximal remote sensing tehcnologies to assess soil cover fractions on agricultural fields. Sensors 18(3):708.

Liu H, S Blagodatsky, M Giese, F Liu, J Xu, G Cadisch. 2016. Impact of herbicide application on soil erosion and induced carbon loss in a rubber plantation of Southwest China. Catena 145:108-192.

Lollato RP, A Patrignani, T Ochsner, JT Edwards. 2015. Prediction of Plant Available Water at Sowing for Winter Wheat in the Southern Great Plains. Agronomy Journal 108:745-757.

Mahood AL. 2017. Long-term effects of repeated firest on the diversity and composition of Great Basin sagebrush plant communities. MA Thesis, Univ Colorado, 37 pp

Moffet C. 2009. Agreement between measurements of shrub cover using bround-based methods and verylarge scale aerial imagery. Rangeland Ecology and Management 62(3):268-277.

Monz CA, JL Marion, KA Goonan, RE Manning, J Wimpey, C Carr. 2010. Assessment and monitoring of recreation impacts and resource conditions on mountain summits: Examples from the northern forest, USA. Mountain Research and Development 30(4):332-343.

Nielsen DC, DJ Lyon, GW Hergert, RK Higgins, FJ Calderon, MF Vigil. 2015. Cover crop mixtures do not use water differently than single-species plantings. Agronomy Journal 107(3):1025-1038.

Nielsen DC, DJ Lyon, GW Hergert, RK Higgins, JD Holman. 2015. Cover Crop Biomass Production and Water Use in the Central Great Plains. Agronomy Journal 107:2047-2058.

Nielsen DC, JJ Miceli-Garcia, DJ Lyon. 2012. Performance of quantitative vegetation sampling methods across gradients of cover in Great Basin plant communities. Agronomy Journal 104(6):1569-1573

Nielsen DC, JJ Miceli-Garcia, DJ Lyon. 2012. Canopy cover and leaf area index relationships for wheat, triticale and corn. Agronomy Journal 104(6):1569-1573

Oja R, K Zilmer, H Valdmann. 2015. Spatiotemporal Effects of Supplementary Feeding of Wild Boar (Susscrofa) on Artificial Ground Nest Depredation. PLOS ONE DOI:10.134/journal.pone.0135254

Pilliod DS, RS Arkle. 2013. Performance of quantitative vegetation sampling methods across gradients of cover in Great Basin plant communities. Rangeland Ecology and Management 66:634-647.

Prabhakara K, WD Hively, GW McCarty. 2015. Evaluating the relationship between biomass, percent groundcover and remote sensing indices across six winter cover crop fields in Maryland, United States. International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 39:88-102.

Quemada M, WD Hively, CST Daughtry, BT Lamb, J Shermeyer. 2018. Improved crop residue cover estimates obtained by coupling spectral indices for residue and moisture. Remote Sensing of Environment 206:33-44.

Roldan VA, R Baldi, HF Dell Valle, D Deutschman. 2017. Living on the edge: Heterogeneity in vegetation type cover as key factor of the habitat occupied by Dolichotis patagonum at landscape scale. Journal of Arid Environments 140:42-49.

Ryan EM, K Ogle, TJ Zelikova, DR LeCain, D Williams, JA Morgan. 2015. Antecedent moisture and temperature conditions modulate the response of ecosystem respiration to elevated CO2 and warming. Global Change Biology 21(7).

Sivanpillai R, DT Booth. 2008. Characterizing rangeland vegetation using Landsat and 1-mm VLSA data in central Wyoming. Agroforest Systems 73:55-64.

Skipper B, B Grisham, M Kalyvaki, K McGaughey, k Mougey, L Navarrete, R Rondeau, C Boal, G Perry. 2013. Non-overlapping distributions of feral sheep (Ovis aries) and stout iguanas (Cyclura pinguis) on Guana Island, British Virgin Islands. IRCF Reptiles & Amphibians 20(1):7-15.

Stephenson MB, DW Bailey, LD Howery, L Henderson. 2016. Efficacy of low-stress herding and low-moisture block to target cattle grazing locations on New Mexico rangelands Journal of Arid Environments 130:84-93.

Taylor JB, DT Booth, CM Moffet. 2006. Digital imagery and landscape-scale rangeland monitoring. Proceedings, Western Section, American Society of Animal Science, Vol 57.

Yimam YT, TE Ochsner, VG Kakani. 2015.Evapotranspiration partitioning and water use efficiency of switchgrass and biomass sorghum managed for biofuel. Agricultural Water Management 155:40-47.

Zhour L, H He, X Sun, L Zhang, G Yu, X Ren, J Wang, F Zhao. 2012.Modeling winter wheat phenology and carbon dioxide fluxes at the ecosystem scale based on digital photography and eddy covariance data. Ecological Informatics 18: 69-78.

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